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Essential Oils: History, Use, Extraction and Quality

Essential oils have a long and rich history that dates back to ancient civilizations.


History of Essential Oils


The earliest evidence of their use can be traced to nearly 3000-2500 B.C. where they were used in aromatherapy in Egypt. Ancient Egyptians used these oils for spiritual and medicinal purposes, as well as in cosmetics and perfumes. They were also used in the embalming process.


In addition to Egypt, other ancient civilizations also recognized the value of essential oils. The Greeks, for instance, used them for their therapeutic and aromatic qualities. Hippocrates, often referred to as the father of medicine, was known to have used these oils in his practice.


In the East, essential oils were a key part of Ayurvedic medicine in India, which is one of the world's oldest holistic healing systems. The Chinese also used essential oils and documented their benefits in the earliest known book on the subject, "Yellow Emperor's Book of Internal Medicine", which dates back to approximately 2697 B.C.


The Romans were known for their baths, and they incorporated essential oils into their routines, using them not just for their aromatic qualities, but also for their antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.


In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, essential oils became more widespread in Europe, with their use expanding beyond medicine to include food preparation and preservation.

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Essential Oils Standing on Ancient Recipe Book

Use of Essential Oils in Aromatherapy, Skincare and More


Essential Oils are used for a wide range of purposes from Aromatherapy to Skincare, Pain Relief and Food Products, Drinks and Supplements. Here are just a few examples.

  • Aromatherapy: Essential oils can be used for aromatherapy, a holistic healing treatment that uses natural plant extracts to promote health and well-being. They can be inhaled or diluted and applied to the skin.

  • Skin Care: Some essential oils have skin-enhancing benefits and can be used in skincare routines. For example, tea tree oil has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that can help treat acne.

  • Pain Relief: Certain essential oils, like lavender and peppermint, can be used to alleviate pain. They can be massaged into the skin or inhaled for relief.

  • Household Cleaning: Essential oils like lemon and eucalyptus have natural antibacterial properties, making them good options for homemade cleaning products.

  • Mood Enhancement: Scents like lavender, chamomile, and sandalwood can be used to help reduce stress and anxiety, promote relaxation, and improve mood.

  • Sleep Aid: Some essential oils, such as lavender and chamomile, can help promote better sleep when diffused in the bedroom or added to bathwater.

  • Insect Repellent: Certain oils like citronella and lemongrass are known to repel insects and can be used in homemade bug sprays.

  • Respiratory Health: Eucalyptus and peppermint oils are often used to help clear the sinuses and promote better respiratory health.



Essential Oils: Methods of Extraction


  • Steam Distillation: This is the most common method used to extract essential oils. The plant material is placed in a still and steam is forced over the material. The hot steam causes the plant's cell walls to open allowing the essential oil to be released.

  • Cold Press Extraction: Mostly used for citrus oils, the peels of the fruits are pressed to squeeze out the oil. The pressure causes the oil sacs to burst, releasing the essential oil.

  • Solvent Extraction: In this method, a solvent such as hexane is used to extract the oil. The solvent will pull out the oil, resins, and other soluble substances from the plant. The solvent is then evaporated, leaving behind the essential oil.

  • CO2 Extraction: This method uses carbon dioxide under high pressure and low temperature to extract the oil. Once the pressure is reduced, the carbon dioxide evaporates, leaving behind the essential oil.

  • Enfleurage: This is a traditional method where flowers are placed on a layer of fat. The fat absorbs the oil from the flowers over a period of time. The fat is then separated from the oil.

  • Maceration: This method involves soaking the plant material in a carrier oil, allowing the cellular membranes to rupture and release the essential oil.

  • Hydrodistillation: Similar to steam distillation, but the plant material is fully submerged in water, rather than having steam passed over it.

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Chamomile Flowers in Distillation Recepticle

Essential Oils: How Quality is Determined


Essential oils are typically evaluated based on their purity, plant source, extraction method, and chemical composition. Purity is paramount as the presence of additives or synthetic substances can significantly reduce the therapeutic benefits and potentially cause adverse reactions.


The plant source also plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the essential oil. The plant's growing conditions, including its geographical location, climate, and soil quality, can influence the oil's potency and therapeutic properties.


The extraction method is another critical factor. Steam distillation and cold pressing are commonly used methods that do not involve chemical solvents, thus preserving the oil's natural properties. However, some manufacturers may use cheaper, chemical-based extraction methods, which can negatively impact the oil's quality.


Lastly, the chemical composition of the oil, which can be determined through testing methods like Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), is a definitive measure of its quality. These tests can identify the various compounds within the oil and detect any impurities or synthetic additives. High-quality essential oils typically have a wide range of therapeutic compounds and no synthetic substances.


Quality essential oils often come in dark-colored glass bottles to protect the oils from sunlight, which can degrade the oil over time. They also have a strong, pure aroma, and they do not leave a greasy residue when rubbed into the skin.


It's important to note that not all essential oils are created equal. Therefore, it's crucial to purchase oils from reputable companies that provide transparency.


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Flowers and Herbs Collection in Glass Bottles

Safe Use of Essential Oils


Essential oils are highly concentrated plant extracts that have a variety of uses, from aromatherapy to skincare. However, they must be used safely to prevent any adverse reactions.


Firstly, essential oils should always be diluted before use. Applying them directly to the skin can cause irritation or an allergic reaction. A common method of dilution is mixing them with a carrier oil, such as jojoba or almond oil.


Secondly, some essential oils are not safe for ingestion. Always check the label and consult with a healthcare professional before ingesting any essential oil.


Thirdly, essential oils should be stored out of reach of children and pets. Some oils can be toxic if ingested in large quantities.